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1945–Entertainer, Bette Midler, is born in Aiea, Hawaii. In a career spanning almost half a century, she has sold over 30 million records worldwide. She has appeared in the films The Rose, Divine Madness!, Jinxed!, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Ruthless People, Big Business, Beaches, Stella, For the Boys, Scenes from a Mall, Get Shorty, and The First Wives Club. She is married to artist, Martin von Haselberg.



800–Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican.

1081–Louis VI of France is born in Paris, France. He spent almost all of his 29-year reign in fighting either the "robber barons" who plagued Paris, or the Norman kings of England for their continental possession of Normandy.

1135–Henry I of England dies from eating a number of lampreys in Saint-Denis-en-Lyons, Normandy, at age 66.

1241–Isabella of England dies during childbirth in Foggia, Apulia, Italy, at age 26.

1420–Henry V of England enters Paris, France.

1433–Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan dies in Fukakusa no kita no Misasagi (Kyoto), at age 56.

1521–Pope Leo X dies of bronchopneumonia in Rome, Papal States, at age 45. He is best remembered for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice that was challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses.

1530–Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, dies in Mechelen, Duchy of Brabant, at age 50.

1577–Francis Walsingham is knighted.

1640–Portugal acclaims João IV of Portugal as King, ending 60 years of personal union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain, and the end of the rule of the Philippine Dynasty.

1761–Sculptor, Marie Tussaud, is born Anne-Marie Grosholtz in Strasbourg, France. She founded Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. In 1777, she created her first wax figure, that of Voltaire. From 1780 until the Revolution in 1789, Tussaud created many of her most famous portraits of celebrities, which included Benjamin Franklin. During the French Revolution, Tussaud was employed to make death masks of the victims of the time, including some of the most infamous dead, such as Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Marat, and Robespierre. In 1835, she established her first permanent exhibition on Baker Street, on the upper floor of the "Baker Street Bazaar" in London, England. Madame Tussaud's wax museum has grown to become one of the major tourist attractions in London, and has expanded with branches in Amsterdam, Bangkok, Sydney, Madame Tussauds Hong Kong (Victoria Peak), Las Vegas, Shanghai, Berlin, Washington D.C., New York City, Orlando, Hollywood, and Singapore.

1768–The former slave ship, Fredensborg, sinks off Tromøy in Norway.

1822–Peter I is crowned Emperor of Brazil.

1824–Since no candidate received a majority of the total electoral college votes in the Presidential election, the U.S. House of Representatives is given the task of deciding the winner in accordance with the Twelfth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

1825–Alexander I of Russia dies of typhus in Taganrog, Rostov Oblast, Russia, at age 47. He ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. Analysis of Alexander's handwriting shows it to match that of the monk, Feodor Kuzmich, who appeared mysteriously in Siberia in 1836, and died in 1864. The monk was noted for his genteel manner, was able to speak several languages, and claimed that he had forgotten his past. Even during his lifetime, there were rumors that he had been a former tsar. Many commoners believed those rumors, as did the royal family of Alexander III.

1826–French philhellene, Charles Nicolas Fabvier, forces his way through the Turkish cordon and ascends the Acropolis of Athens, which had been under siege.

1828–Argentine general, Juan Lavalle, makes a coup against Governor Manuel Dorrego, beginning the Decembrist revolution.

1834–Slavery is abolished in the Cape Colony in accordance with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

1844–Alexandra of Denmark is born Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark.

1862–In his State of the Union Address, President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered 10 weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.

1865–Shaw University, the first historically black university in the southern United States, is founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

1885–The soft drink, Dr Pepper, is served for the first time ever at a drug store in Waco, Texas.

1897–Actor, Cyril Ritchard, is born Cyril Trimnell-Ritchard in Surrey Hills, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. He is best known for the role of Captain Hook in the Mary Martin musical production of Peter Pan.

1901–Super-centenarian, Jane Gray, is born Jane Cant in Newtyle, Scotland. She would go to be the oldest living person in Australia, until her death at age 112 (and 188 days) on June 7, 2014. Until 2013, Gray lived at home with her daughter and expressed her hope to become the world's oldest living person.

1910–Ballerina and choreographer, Alicia Markova, is born Lilian Alicia Marks in London, England. She was the first British dancer to become the principal dancer of a ballet company, and along with Dame Margot Fonteyn, is one of only two English dancers to be recognized as a prima ballerina assoluta. Markova was a founding dancer of the Rambert Dance Company, The Royal Ballet, and American Ballet Theatre, and was co-founder and director of the English National Ballet.

1912–Architect, Minoru Yamasaki, is born in Seattle, Washington. He designed the original World Trade Center in New York City. Yamasaki was one of the most prominent architects of the 20th century. He and fellow architect, Edward Durell Stone, are generally considered to be the two master practitioners of "New Formalism."

1913–The first gas station for automobiles opens on this day in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

1913–The continuous moving assembly line is introduced by Ford. A car can now be produced every 2 minutes, 38 seconds.

1913–The Buenos Aires Metro, the first underground railway system in the Southern Hemisphere and in Latin America, begins operation.

1913–Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the First Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.

1913–Actress, Mary (Virginia) Martin, is born in Weatherford, Texas. She is best known for her starring role in Peter Pan. On Broadway, she also appeared in Annie Get Your Gun, South Pacific, The Sound of Music, Hello, Dolly! and I Do! I Do! Her son was actor, Larry Hagman.

1916–Politician, Wan Li, is born in Dongping County, Shandong, China. He was the fourth Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China.

1918–Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia and Bukovina, concluding the Great Union.

1918–The Kingdom of Iceland becomes a sovereign state, yet remains a part of the Danish Kingdom.

1918–The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.

1919–Lady Astor becomes the first female Member of Parliament to take her seat in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

1923–Actor, Dick Shawn, is born Richard Schulefand in Buffalo, New York. He appeared in the films The Opposite Sex, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, Way... Way Out, The Producers, and Love At First Bite.

1929–Actor, David (Fitzgerald) Doyle, is born in Omaha, Nebraska. He is best known for the role of detective John Bosley on the TV series Charlie's Angels, appearing in all 110 episodes of the series (1976-1981). He appeared in the films No Way to Treat a Lady, Coogan’s Bluff, Paper Lion, The April Fools, Some Kind of a Nut, Loving, Ginger in the Morning, and Capricorn One.

1930–Singer, Matt Monro, is born Terence Edward Parsons in Shoreditch, London, England. He was known as “The Man With The Golden Voice,” and became one of the most popular entertainers on the international music scene during the 1960s and 1970s. His highest U.K. chart success was with Portrait of My Love.

1933–Soul singer, Lou Rawls, is born Louis Allen Rawls in Chicago, Illinois. Rawls released more than 60 albums and sold more than 40 million records. His biggest hits were Love Is a Hurtin' Thing, Natural Man, and You'll Never Find Another Love Like Mine.

1934–In the Soviet Union, Politburo member, Sergey Kirov, is shot dead by Leonid Nikolaev at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad.

1934–Singer, Billy Paul, is born Paul Williams in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His biggest hit was Me and Mrs. Jones, which hit #1 for the last three weeks of 1972, selling two million copies. Billy Paul served in the U.S. Army with Elvis Presley, Gary Crosby, and a number of other musicians, in post-World War II Germany.

1935–Director and comedian, Woody Allen, is born Allen Stewart Konigsberg in the Bronx, New York. He adopted his pseudonym when he first began writing one-liners, at age 15, mostly for newspapers, and he then wrote for TV comedy programs for three years. In 1960, he worked for awhile as a standup comedian and gained fame, landing guest spots on TV shows, including The Tonight Show. He appeared in the films What’s New Pussycat?, Casino Royale, Take the Money and Run, Bananas, Play It Again, Sam, Sleeper, Love and Death, and The Front. As a director, his films include What’s up, Tiger Lily?, Annie Hall, Manhattan, Stardust Memories, Zelig, Broadway Danny Rose, The Purple Rose of Cairo, Hannah and Her Sisters, Crimes and Misdemeanors, Husbands and Wives, Sweet and Lowdown, Scoop, and Match Point. He was married to actress, Louise Lasser.

1938–Rock drummer, Sandy Nelson, is born in Santa Monica, California. Nelson, one of the best-known rock drummers of the early 1960s, had several solo instrumental “Top 40” hits and was a session drummer on many other well-known hits. He released over 30 albums. His biggest was Teen Beat.

1939–Golfer, Lee (Buck) Trevino, is born in Dallas, Texas. He won six major championships over the course of his career. He is one of only four players to twice win the U.S. Open, The Open Championship, and the PGA Championship.

1940–Dupree Gardens, an enormous exotic garden of tropical trees and flowers, opens. It is on the 900-acre estate of J. William Dupree in Pasco County, Florida. The Gardens closed sometime in the 1950s. Part of the land became an orchard, part became Dupree Gardens Estates, and part around the lake became a nudist colony. Residential development continues, but traces of the gardens still live on in some of the unusual exotic plants that remain scattered throughout the area.

1940–Comedian and actor, Richard Pryor, is born Richard Franklin Lennox Thomas Pryor in Peoria, Illinois. He is widely regarded as one of the most important and influential stand-up comedians of all time. He appeared in the films Wild in the Streets, Dynamite Chicken, Lady Sings the Blues, Uptown Saturday Night, Car Wash, Silver Streak, Greased Lightening, The Wiz, California Suite, Stir Crazy, Some Kind of Hero, and Jo Jo Dancer, Your Life Is Calling. His daughter is actress, Rain Pryor.

1941–Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives the final approval to initiate war against the United States.

1941–Fiorello La Guardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol.

1942–Gasoline is rationed in the U.S because of World War II.

1944–Eric Bloom, of Blue Öyster Cult, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He is known as the main vocalist and "stun guitar" player for the long-running band, with work on over 20 albums.

1944–John (Paul) Densmore, of The Doors, is born in Los Angeles, California. He joined The Doors in 1965, and remained a member until the band's dissolution in 1973. Densmore wrote his best-selling autobiography, Riders On The Storm, about his life and the time he spent with Jim Morrison and The Doors.

1945–Entertainer, Bette Midler, is born in Aiea, Hawaii. In a career spanning almost half a century, she has sold over 30 million records worldwide. She has appeared in the films The Rose, Divine Madness!, Jinxed!, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Ruthless People, Big Business, Beaches, Stella, For the Boys, Scenes from a Mall, Get Shorty, and The First Wives Club. She is married to artist, Martin von Haselberg.

1946–Singer, Gilbert O’Sullivan, is born Raymond Edward O'Sullivan in Waterford, Ireland. His biggest hit was Alone Again (Naturally).

1947–British occultist, Aleister Crowley, dies of chronic bronchitis in Hastings, East Sussex, England, at age 72. Services were held at a crematorium in Brighton, with a dozen people in attendance. Excerpts from the Gnostic Mass, The Book of the Law, and "Hymn to Pan" were read. This generated a frenzy by the press, who labeled the funeral a Black Mass. Crowley was a ceremonial magician, poet, painter, and novelist. He gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual, and an individualist social critic. As a result, he was denounced in the popular press as "the wickedest man in the world" and “erroneously” labeled a Satanist.

1949–Colombian drug lord, Pablo Escobar, is born Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria in Rionegro, Colombia. Known as "The King of Cocaine," he is regarded as the wealthiest criminal in history, with an estimated net worth of $30 billion by the early 1990s.

1950–Drumming prodigy and and child actor, Keith Thibodeaux, is born in Lafayette, Louisiana. He is best known for the role of Little Ricky in the TV sitcom I Love Lucy. He also appeared on The Andy Griffith Show, between 1962 and 1966, as Opie's friend Johnny Paul Jason.

1951–Jaco Pastorius, bass player for Weather Report and Blood, Sweat & Tears, is born John Francis Anthony Pastorius III in Norristown, Pennsylvania. He also worked with Joni Mitchell and Pat Metheny. He was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1988, one of only seven bassists so honored.

1951–Actor, (Richard) Treat Williams, is born in Rowayton, Connecticut. He appeared in the films The Eagle Has Landed, Hair, 1941, Prince of the City, Dempsey, Once Upon a Time in America, Dead Heat, Heart of Dixie, Things to Do in Denver When You're Dead, Mulholland Falls, and What Happens in Vegas.

1952–The New York Daily News reports the news of Christine Jorgensen, the first notable case of sexual reassignment surgery.

1955–In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city's racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

1957–Buddy Holly & the Crickets perform That’ll Be the Day on The Ed Sullivan Show.

1958–The Central African Republic attains self-rule within the French Union.

1958–The Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago, Illinois, kills 92 children and three nuns.

1958–Actress, Charlene Tilton, is born in San Diego, California. She is best known for the role of Lucy Ewing in the TV series Dallas. She appeared in the films Freaky Friday, Big Wednesday, Problem Child 2, Detonator, and Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star. She was married to country singer, Johnny Lee.

1959–The signing of the Antarctic Treaty takes place, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent.

1960–Paul McCartney and Pete Best are arrested (and later deported) from Hamburg, Germany, after accusations of attempted arson in the back of a movie theater.

1960–Model, Carol (Ann) Alt, is born in Flushing, Queens, New York. During the 1980s, she appeared on over 500 magazine covers, becoming one of the most famous models of her era. She was referred to as “The Face” by Life magazine. During the height of her popularity, she seen in ad campaigns for Diet Pepsi, General Motors, Cover Girl Cosmetics, Noxzema, and Hanes.

1963–Nagaland becomes the 16th state of India.

1964–President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.

1964–Malawi, Malta, and Zambia join the United Nations.

1965–India's Border Security Force is established.

1969–The first draft lottery is held in the United States since World War II.

1969–The 77th and final monthly issue of The Beatles Book is published. But publication of reprints will resume in May 1976.

1969–A concert by Delaney & Bonnie and Friends takes place at Royal Albert Hall in London, England (with guest Eric Clapton).

1970–Comedienne, Sarah (Kate) Silverman, is born in Bedford, New Hampshire. Her satirical comedy addresses social taboos and controversial topics, such as racism, sexism, and religion. She appeared in the films Bulworth, There’s Something About Mary, The Bachelor, Heartbreakers, School of Rock, Bad Santa, and Rent.

1971–In the Cambodian Civil War, Khmer Rouge rebels intensify assaults on Cambodian government positions, forcing their retreat from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray.

1973–Papua New Guinea gains self-governance from Australia.

1973–Politician, David Ben-Gurion, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Ramat Gan, Israel, at age 87. He was was the primary founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.

1974–TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727, crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport, in Washington, D.C., killing all 92 people on board.

1974–Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 6231, a Boeing 727, crashes northwest of John F. Kennedy International Airport.

1975–Automotive engineer and racecar driver, Ernesto Maserati, dies in Bologna, Italy, at age 77. He won the Italian drivers championship in 1927. He participated in the design of the Maserati A6 after World War II.

1976–Angola joins the United Nations.

1981–Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308, a McDonnell Douglas MD-80, crashes in Corsica, killing all 180 people on board.

1984–NASA conducts the Controlled Impact Demonstration, wherein an airliner is deliberately crashed in order to test technologies and gather data to help improve survivability of crashes.

1986–Singer, Lee Dorsey, dies of emphysema in New Orleans, Louisiana, at age 61. He had hits with the songs Ya Ya, Do-Re-Mi, and Working in a Coal Mine.

1987–Novelist, essayist, playwright, poet, and social critic, James Arthur Baldwin, dies of esophageal cancer in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, at age 63. Baldwin was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York.

1988–Benazir Bhutto is appointed Prime Minister of Pakistan.

1989–The right-wing military rebels, Reform the Armed Forces Movement, attempts to oust Philippine President Corazon Aquino in a failed bloody coup d'état.

1989–East Germany's parliament abolishes the constitutional provision granting the Communist Party the leading role in the state.

1989–Dancer and choreographer, Alvin Ailey, dies of HIV/AIDS in Manhattan, New York, at age 58. He founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in New York City. He is credited with popularizing modern dance and revolutionizing African-American participation in 20th-century concert dance.

1990–Channel Tunnel sections started from the United Kingdom and France meet 40 metres beneath the seabed.

1991–Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.

1991–George Harrison begins a tour of Japan, with a performance in Yokohama Arena. He is backed by Eric Clapton and his band.

1997–In the Indian state of Bihar, Ranvir Sena attacks the CPI(ML) Party Unity stronghold Lakshmanpur-Bathe, killing 63 lower-caste people.

1997–Violinist, Stéphane Grappelli, dies after undergoing a hernia operation in Paris, France, at age 89. He founded the Quintette du Hot Club de France with guitarist, Django Reinhardt, in 1934. It was one of the first all-string jazz bands. He has been called "the grandfather of jazz violinists" and continued playing concerts around the world well into his 80s.

2001–Aiko, Princess Toshi of Japan, is born at Imperial Household Agency Hospital in Tokyo, Japan.

2008–Actor, Paul Benedict, dies in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, at age 70. He is best known for the role of English neighbor Harry Bentley on the TV sitcom The Jeffersons.

2009–The Treaty of Lisbon comes into effect. It amends the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community.

2012–Football player, Jovan Belcher, dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head at age 25. Minutes earlier, he had fatally shot his girlfriend, Kasandra Perkins, multiple times at their home.

2013–A derailment of a Metro-North Railroad train near Spuyten Duyvil, the Bronx, New York, kills four people and injures 61 others.

2015–So-called "White Student Unions" begin springing up at several Australian universities, including the University of Queensland, University of Southern Queensland, University of Technology Sydney, Macquarie University, Western Sydney University, University of New South Wales, and the University of Western Australia. The groups say they are defending the interests of white students who are becoming marginalized from on-campus life and politics.

2015–With the birth of their daughter, Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan, pledge to give away over the course of their lifetimes 99% of their Facebook shares, which are currently worth about $45 billion. The couple are no strangers to philanthropy: they've already donated $1.6 billion to various causes. The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative follows in the footsteps of the Gates Foundation started by Bill and Melinda Gates, and is part of a growing wave of philanthropy in Silicon Valley.

2015–A couple drops a $500,000 check into a Salvation Army kettle outside a Cub Foods in suburban Minneapolis, Minnesota.

2015–Mayor Rahm Emanuel asks for and receives the resignation of Chicago, Illinois, Police Superintendant, Garry McCarthy. The change comes in the wake of protests brought about by police footage showing the October 2014 shooting of Laquan McDonald.

2015–After four years, The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills star, Yolanda Foster, and her husband, songwriter and record producer, David Foster, decide to end their marriage.

2016–President-elect Donald Trump begins his “Thank You-Victory” tour in Cincinnati, Ohio.

2016–A United Nations human rights commission in South Sudan claims a "steady process of ethnic cleansing is underway" in the war-torn nation.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Louis VI of France; Marie Tussaud; Alexander I of Russia; an advertisement for Dr Pepper; an early gas station; Lady Astor; Billy Paul; Richard Pryor; John Densmore; Keith Thibodeaux; Buddy Holly & the Crickets on The Ed Sullivan Show; Carol Alt; Delaney & Bonnie and Friends; Ernesto Maserati; Alvin Ailey; Stephane Grappelli; and David and Yolanda Foster.

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